Multiple myeloma research foundation

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The Foundation for the research in Multiple Myeloma (Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation MMRF) was founded in 1998 by two identical twins, Kathy Giusti and Karen Andrews, shortly after that to Kathy they diagnosed multiple myeloma, an incurable blood cancer.

The Mission of the MMRF is buscarsin rest innovative strategies that accelerate the development of treatments of new generation for multiple myeloma that prolong the lives of patients and lead to a cure.

Thanks to the support and generosity of people like you and in close collaboration with researchers, doctors, and our partners in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry, we have helped bring to patients with multiple myeloma four new treatments that are prolonging lives around the world.

Today we are culminating the next revolutionary treatment and support a portfolio of more than 30 promising compounds and combinations-therapeutic treatments, including more than 20 clinical trials that we promoted through our subsidiary, the Consortium for the investigation of Multiple Myeloma (Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium MMRC).

Multiple myeloma research foundation is the most reliable source for multiple myeloma community, supports patients during any illness and from the moment of diagnosis.

Anyone who is multiple myeloma stage in which it is located, can count on the MMRF will give you the information you need about this disease and treatment options, including clinical trials. The information on our web site,, is adapted for patients by stages of the disease to ensure that you receive it you need at the right time.

For more information about the MMRF visit

What is multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a haematological cancer that develops in the bone marrow.
what is multiple myeloma In patients with myeloma, plasma cells normal antibody producers transform into malignant cells
Myeloma. Myeloma cells they produce large amounts of a antibody (or immunoglobulin) called monoclonal protein (M). These malignant cells displace cells blood normal in bone marrow
e bone inhibit their production and of antibodies.

In addition, groups Myeloma cells make than others the bone marrow cells to eliminate the part
hard bones and bodily injury Osteolytic, which are soft spots in bone.Myeloma cells in the bone marrow cause osteolyticAlthough these lesions and other signs of bone loss are frequent, not all people with Myeloma present them.

What is the cause of myeloma?

So far has not determined what It is the cause of myeloma. Studies They point to possible partnerships with a deterioration of the immune system, with certain occupations, with exposure to certain chemical substances and exposure to radiation.

However, None of the associations is clear and in the majority of cases, the Myeloma multiple appears in people with no factors known risk. Is possible that the multiple myeloma is a consequence of the joint action of several factors.

It is uncommon for myeloma to appear in more a member of a family.

Is myeloma frequent?

Multiple myeloma is the second cancer Hematology more frequent, then Lymphoma non-Hodgkin, and represents approximately 1% of all the cancers and 2% of all deaths by cancer.

American society Cancer (American Cancer Society) estimates that for 2010 is diagnosed with multiple myeloma 20 to 180 people in the United States. The figure of reported cases of myeloma in a given time prevalence varies according to sex, age and race or ethnic origin.

Multiple myeloma is more frequent in men than in the women, their frequency increases as the age increases and the people of race Black is two times more common than in those of Caucasians.

What effects does myeloma have on the body?

multiple myeloma mainly affects bone, but also has effects on the blood and the kidneysWhat effects does myeloma have on the body

What are the symptoms of myeloma?

in the early stages of myeloma it there is usually no symptoms. When there are
they are vague and similar to those of other diseases. among the most common

  • bone pain
  • fatigue
  • weakness
  • infections
  • loss of appetite and weight loss

Symptoms due to elevated blood concentrations of calcium (hypercalcemia) or kidney, as for example problems may also appear:

  • increase or decrease in urination (the Act of urination)
  • increased thirst
  • concern, which is accompanied by extreme weakness and fatigue increased thirst
  • confusion
  • nausea and vomiting

Do tests for diagnosing myeloma?

In the initial evaluation tend to do different clinical analysis to help to confirm the diagnosis of myeloma. These analyses are made with samples of blood, urine, bone and bone marrow.

Common medical tests and clinical analysis for confirm the diagnosis of myeloma

Blood count to determine to what degree is affecting myeloma normal production of blood cells the lower figures may indicate anemia, increased risk of getting infections, and clotting difficulties

Clinical Biochemistry (albumin, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], blood urea nitrogen
[BUN], and creatinine) to assess the general State of health and the extension of the Myeloma anomalous concentrations may indicate kidney damage and increase the amount or size of tumors.

Level of microglobulin beta 2 (M-ss2) to determine the concentration of a serum protein that reflects both the pathological activity as renal function elevated concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread test help to know the stage of the disease.

C-reactive protein stop an estimate indirectly the amount of cancer cells high concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread

Levels of immunoglobulins to define the levels of antibodies to overproduce elevated myeloma cells point to the presence of a myeloma.

Electrophoresis of serum proteins to detect the presence and concentration of various
proteins, including protein M high concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread; the test helps to classify disease.

Immunoelectrophoresis (also called with IFE immunofixation electrophoresis) to identify the type of abnormal antibodies that help blood to classify disease.

Freelite analysis of light chains free serum to measure the light chains of
immunoglobulin concentrations and/or abnormal proportions are running to the presence of a myeloma or a similar disease.

Analysis of urine for assessing renal function abnormal results may indicate kidney damage.

Concentration of Bence Jones protein (made with a 24-hour urine sample) to define the presence and concentration of the protein of Bence Jones his presence indicates the
existence of myeloma and elevated concentrations indicate that the disease is more widespread.

Protein in urine and immunoelectrophoresis to determine the presence and
concentration of certain proteins in the urine, such as M protein and protein of Bence Jones protein M or Bence Jones protein presence indicates the existence of myeloma.

Radiological studies (bone series, x-rays, magnetic resonance, computed tomography [CT], [PET] Positron Emission Tomography the clinical value of this test has not yet been established.) To assess changes in the bone structure and determine
the number and size of bone tumors.

Aspirated liquid bone marrow or bone tissue biopsy to determine the amount and the percentage of normal and malignant plasmocytes in the bone marrow myeloma cells confirms the diagnosis and a greater percentage of cells of
Myeloma indicates that the disease is most widespread.

Cytogenetic analysis (fluorescence in-situ hybridization [FISH]) to evaluate the quantity and normality of the chromosomes and the presence of translocations (desemparejamientos of chromosome parts) loss of certain chromosomes (deletions) or translocations could
lead to a bad evolution.

It is very important to have all the relevant evidence, since the results they will help your doctor determine the therapeutic options and prognosis, i.e the planned evolution of the disease.

Many of these tests are they are also used to evaluate the extent of disease and plan and monitor the

Cytogenetic analysis is them not to all newly diagnosed persons Myeloma, but in some hospitals specialized in the treatment of the multiple myeloma is making every and more.

The influence that the results cytogenetic analysis have on the choice of therapeutic agents more
recent is something that continues to change.

In patients with myeloma have identified several genetic abnormalities and studies indicate that the prognosis and the response to treatment may vary Depending on the specific subtype of the disease.

However, the correlation not defined enough to that will help in deciding what It is the best treatment option.

Once your doctor has you diagnosed multiple myeloma, is important that you refer to a specialist with experience in the myeloma treatment for one more thorough assessment of disease and prepare a plan of treatment.

Usually you can find one of these specialists in the designated cancer centers by the National Cancer Institute of the United States (National Cancer Institute,NCI). Doctors often refer to the people with multiple myeloma to a oncohematologist, who is a doctor specialized in diseases and disorders of the blood and in the cancer.

Some oncohematologos They subespecializan in cancers hematological, as for example the
multiple myeloma. If you want to find a Cancer Center or a myeloma specialist, search in the section “Newly Diagnosed Patients”of the section”Living With Multiple Myeloma”website of the MMRF and go to “Choosing Your Doctor”

Multiple myeloma with amyloidosis