Blood tests. The laboratory analysis of blood may reveal protein produced by myeloma cells M. Other abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells called beta 2 microglobulin can be detected in the blood and give to your tracks medical about the aggressiveness of the myeloma.
Also blood tests to examine his renal function, blood cell counts, levels of calcium and uric acid levels can give your tracks the doctor about his diagnosis.
Blood cell counts The complete blood count is a test that measures the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the blood. If there are too many myeloma cells in the bone marrow, the levels of some of these blood cells are low. The most common finding is tallying low red blood cells (anemia).
Quantitative immunoglobulins This test measures blood levels of different antibodies. There are several different types of antibodies in the blood: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. The levels of these immunoglobulins are measured to determine if somebody is abnormally high or low. In multiple myeloma, a type level may be high while others are low.
Electrophoresis Immunoglobulin produced by myeloma cells is abnormal because it is monoclonal (same antibody). A test called electrophoresis of proteins in serum (SPEP), measures the amount of immunoglobulins in the blood and can detect a monoclonal immunoglobulin.
Then, another test, such as immunofixation and immunoelectrophoresis, is used to determine the exact type of abnormal antibody (IgG or otherwise). The first step to make a myeloma diagnosis can be find a monoclonal immunoglobulin in the blood. This abnormal protein is known by several different names, including immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody, protein M, M peak and paraprotein.
Immunoglobulins are formed of protein chains: two long chains (heavy) and two shorter chains (light). Sometimes the kidneys excrete in the urine protein M. portions This protein in the urine, known as Bence-Jones protein, is the part of the immunoglobulin light chain called.
The tests used to find a monoclonal immunoglobulin in the urine are called protein in urine (UPEP) and urine immunofixation electrophoresis. More often, these tests are done on urine collected over 24 hours, not just a routine sample.
Free light chains (FLC) This test measures the amount of light chains in the blood. A high level represents a possible sign of myeloma or light chain Amyloidosis.
This test is most useful in rare cases of myeloma in which is not M through the SPEP-protein. Since the SPEP measures (total) intact immunoglobulin levels, you can not measure the amount of free strings.
This test also measures the rate or ratio of free light chains, which is used to see if one type of light chain is more common than the other.
There are two types of light chains: kappa and lambda. Normally, are present in equal amounts in the blood, giving a rate of 1 to 1. If one type of light chain is more common than the other, the index will be different, what may be a sign of myeloma.
Beta 2 microglobulin Beta 2 microglobulin is another protein produced by the malignant cells. Although this protein alone does not cause problems, it may be a useful indicator of the prognosis of the patient. High levels indicate that the disease is more advanced and maybe a worse prognosis.
Biochemical test of blood Levels of urea nitrogen in the blood (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), albumin, calcium levels and other electrolytes will be verified.
BUN and creatinine levels indicate what as well functioning kidneys. An increase in levels means that the kidneys are not working well. This is common in people with myeloma.
Albumin is a protein that is found in the blood. Low levels can be a sign of a more advanced myeloma.
Calcium levels may be higher in people with advanced myeloma. High levels of calcium can cause serious symptoms of fatigue, weakness and confusion.
The levels of electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium may also affect.
Common medical tests and clinical analysis for confirm the diagnosis of myeloma
Blood count to determine to what degree is affecting myeloma normal production of blood cells the lower figures may indicate anemia, increased risk of getting infections, and clotting difficulties
Clinical Biochemistry (albumin, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], blood urea nitrogen
[BUN], and creatinine) to assess the general State of health and the extension of the Myeloma anomalous concentrations may indicate kidney damage and increase the amount or size of tumors.
Level of microglobulin beta 2 (M-ss2) to determine the concentration of a serum protein that reflects both the pathological activity as renal function elevated concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread test help to know the stage of the disease.
C-reactive protein stop an estimate indirectly the amount of cancer cells high concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread
Levels of immunoglobulins to define the levels of antibodies to overproduce elevated myeloma cells point to the presence of a myeloma.
Electrophoresis of serum proteins to detect the presence and concentration of various
proteins, including protein M high concentrations indicate that myeloma is more widespread; the test helps to classify disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis (also called with IFE immunofixation electrophoresis) to identify the type of abnormal antibodies that help blood to classify disease.
Freelite analysis of light chains free serum to measure the light chains of
immunoglobulin concentrations and/or abnormal proportions are running to the presence of a myeloma or a similar disease.