1. Blood count full blood tests Multiple myeloma blood test results.
With the realization of a complete blood count levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in blood are observed.
Cell counts are important for the following reasons:
• The number of white blood cells indicates doctors the risk of infection by a patient.
• The level of hemoglobin, the red blood cells, notifies physicians of a possible state of anemia.
• The number of platelets explains the propensity of the patient to slow blood clotting, and the appearance of bruising easily.
2. Measurement of the evidence
Similarly, at diagnosis and throughout treatment collect blood samples from the patient on a regular basis. As you have seen above, samples of blood and urine are used to measure the level of paraprotein in the same.
Changes in the levels of evidence, in addition to being an indicator of the presence of a myeloma, are also very useful to check changes in the activity of myeloma, so through this test can reveal if the treatment is working or not, and if it stays stable (plateau phase) or there is a relapse.
The serum protein electrophoresis measures the amount of immunoglobulin in blood, and detects those abnormal inmonoglobulinas, such as the monoclonal immunoglobulin produced by cells mielomatosas, as a “monoclonal peak”.
4. Free light chains
Through this test measured the amount of light chains of immunoglobulins in the blood (one of the parties which composed the paraprotein). There are cases of myeloma in which this component of myeloma by electrophoresis is not detected. This is due to the blood protein electrophoresis measuring intact immunoglobulin levels but not free chains.
5. beta 2 Microglobulin
A blood test may also be useful for detecting levels of a molecule called Beta 2 microglobulin (2M). The 2M is another protein in the plasma produced by mielomatosas cells. Although this molecule itself does not cause problems, it is one of the most important indicators of the activity of myeloma and is therefore crucial to determine the prognosis of each individual case.
6. other chemical tests of the blood
- Renal function:
Blood tests are also conducted to delineate levels of nitrogen from urea in the blood (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), both waste products, which are normally filtered through the kidney. High blood levels of the above compounds indicate a poorly functioning kidney.
Albumin is a type of protein produced by the liver. Normally forms the greater part of protein in blood, but in patients affected by myeloma, however, hormones (cytokines) produced by the same myeloma (mainly Interleukin 6) suppress the production of this protein. Therefore, a low level of albumin may indicate an advanced stage of myeloma and is an indicator of worse prognosis
- Measurement of calcium:
Calcium is a mineral that normally found in bone. Those patients who develop active fault of myeloma bone disease, shows a release of calcium from bone to blood flow which can lead to excessive levels of calcium in the blood, which is called hypercalcemia.